• +33 4 92 94 58 00
  • This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The Kura - Aras River Basin

Map of the Kura-Aras
Map of the Kura (Mtkvari) - Aras river system in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran and Turkey. Shaded relief data from US Geological Survey.
Map of the Kura (Mtkvari) - Aras river system in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran and Turkey. Shaded relief data from US Geological Survey.
The Kura is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus east into the Caspian Sea. It also drains the north side of the Lesser Caucasus while its main tributary, the Aras drains the south side of those mountains. Starting in northeastern Turkey, it flows through Turkey to Georgia, then to Azerbaijan, where it receives the Aras as a right tributary, and enters the Caspian Sea. The total length of the river is 1,515 kilometres, with about 174 kilometres of the river in Turkey, 435 kilometres in Georgia, and 906 kilometres) in Azerbaijan. Its basin covers 198,300 km2. About 5,500 km2 of the catchment is in Turkey, 29,743 km2 in Armenia, 46,237 km2 in Georgia, 56,290 km2 in Azerbaijan, and about 63,500 km2 are in Iran. 

The Aras river flows through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres, covering an area of 102,000 km2. 

EUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans in 5 river basin sub-districts of the Kura-Aras basin in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In addition, harmonisation of these plans between Armenia and Georgia and Azerbaijan and Georgia are part of the activities as the support to the development of a bilateral agreement between Azerbaijan and Georgia on Kura basin management.
The Khrami - Debed River Basin sub-District, Georgia
ЕUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans for the Khrami-Debed river basin sub-district in Georgia in line with the European standards. The development of this planning is starting in 2018 and targets the preparation of a plan to be implemented from 2021 to 2027.

Below is an introduction of the basin extracted from the ‘USAID Governing for Growth (G4G) in Georgia’ project paper: Regulatory Impact Assessment of the Draft Law on Water Management.

Physical Characteristics

khrami_debed_1.jpg
The area of territorial entity of Khrami - Debeda Basin District is 5,202 km2. The west border of the basin begins from the mountain Agchala (3,196 m) existing on Javakheti ridge, in 3 km north from Paravani lake it turns from Dalidagi mountain (2,661 m) towards the west; from Kharatashi mountain (2,857 m) it goes up first Samsari mountain (3,284 m) and follows Samsari ridge towards the north up to Tavkvetili mountain (2,582 m); then it abruptly turns to the west, goes along the area north to Tabatskuri lake and from Mshrali Mta mountain goes up Shavi Klde mountain (2,850 m). The highest peaks of the mentioned mountain systems are: Agchala mountain (3,196 m), Dalidagi (2,661 m), Kharatashi (2,850 m), Samsari (3,284 m), Tavkvetili (2,582 m), Mshrali Mta (2,481 m) and Shavi Klde (2,850 m). The south border of the basin, from Agchala Mountain (3,196 m) follows the state border of Georgia, in particular, it goes along Loki ridge, goes down to Kvemo Kartli lowland, goes along the state border, following the riverbed of Debeda river. There are the following highest peaks along the south border: Avakisari (1,866 m), Osinovaya (1,881 m), Dezakari (1,636 m) and Tanadagi (800 m). The north border of the basin begins from Shavi Klde mountain (2,850 m), follows Trialetirigde to the east and in 6 km east from Yuri ridge (2,203 m) it goes down south-east to Bedeni ridge (1,875 m), from Yaila mountain (1,951 m) it follows Bedeni ridge to the east and from Bedeni mountain (1,875 m) goes down south-east to the town Tetritskaro, then follows Algeti river and Ktsia-Khrami river watershed and joins the riverbed of Mtkvari river near the village Tsereteli. There are the following highest peaks of the mountain system along the north border of the basin: Shavi Klde (2,850 m), Arjevani (2,757 m), Yuri ridge (2,203 m), Yaila (1,951 m) and Bedeni (1,875 m). Section of the east border goes along the riverbed of Mtkvari river, from Tsiteli Khidi to the confluence of the river Algeti.

The above described boundaries of the Khrami - Debeda Basin District includes Borjomi municipality of Javakheti region and Tsalka, Dmanisi, Bolnisi, Marneuli and Tetritskaro Municipalities of Kvemo Kartli region.

The main rivers of the Khrami - Debeda Basin District are: Ktsia- Khrami, Korsuchai, Shavtskala, Aslanistskali, Shulaveri, Mashavera, Moshevani, Bolnisi and Debeda. Total length of medium and big rivers in Khrami - Debeda Basin District is 266 kilometres (on the territory of Georgia). In this Basin District total surface area of main lakes and reservoirs (Lake Tabatskuri and Tsalka Reservoir) is 47.9 km2

Socio – Economic Characteristics

Total Population of Khrami - Debeda Basin District is 221,207 (among them, urban population is 54,890 and rural population is 166,317) persons. Concerning to the number of households, this Basin District includes 60,880 households in total (where, urban households amount to 15,530 and rural households amount to 45,350). Regarding to population densities, number of population per square kilometres is 43 persons and number of households per square kilometres is 12 households. Taking into account the length of   medium and average rivers, number of population per kilometre of rivers is 832 persons and 229 households. For the surface area of main lakes of the basin, number of population per square kilometres of lakes is 4,618 persons and 1,271 households.

Value added of Khrami - Debeda Basin District amounts to 405,223,517 GEL (and value added per capita within the basin is 1,832 GEL). Average income per month for urban household is 942.4 GEL and for rural one it amounts to 756.8 GEL. Concerning to economic activity (based on combined rankings of value added, turnover, purchase of goods and services and number of employed), manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade and electricity sectors are leading contributors to economic performance in the given Basin District.

Total number of firms in Khrami - Debeda Basin District amounts to 2,330. The vast majority of firms are concentrated in small businesses (nearly 98%).  Based on percentage shares of number of companies by kind of economic activities, wholesale and retail trade (52%), manufacturing (13%) and real estate (8%) represent the most prominent sectors. 45 percent of employed population in the basin is employed in small businesses and 31% is employed in large size businesses. According to the distribution of employment within sectors in Khrami - Debeda Basin District, 31% is employed in manufacturing sector, 15% is employed in wholesale and retail trade sector and 7% is employed in mining sector (Sources: Business statistics (Geostat); “Natural Resources and Environment Protection in Georgia, 2015” (Geostat); “Census 2014” (Geostat); IHS Databases – 2014 (Geostat) and Draft of Sub-Legislation - 2017).

 SUMMARY TABLE

RIVER BASIN

MAIN RIVERS

MUNICIPALITIES COVERED

PRESSURES

Khrami- Debeda River Basin(catchment area: 5202 km2)

River basin consists of the rivers: Ktsia-Khrami, Korsuchai, Shavtskala, Aslanistskali, Shulaveri, Mashavera, Moshevani, Bolnisi, and Debeda

River basin consists of municipalities of Samtskhe Javakheti (Bordjomi) and Kvemo Kartli (Tsalka, Dmanisi, Bolnisi, Marneuli and Tetritskaro) Regions 

 

Relatively small basin, however, copper mining operation heavily pollutes rivers Kazretula and Mashavera

The Alazani - Iori River Basin sub-District, Georgia
EUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans for the Alazani-Iori river basin sub-district in Georgia in line with the European standards. The development of this planning is starting in 2018 and targets the preparation of a plan to be implemented from 2021 to 2027.

Below is an introduction of the basin extracted from the ‘USAID Governing for Growth (G4G) in Georgia’ project paper: Regulatory Impact Assessment of the Draft Law on Water Management
 
 
Physical Characteristics
alazani_iori-3.jpg

The area of Alazani- Iori Basin District is 12,080 km2

The west border of the basin begins on the north branch of the Caucasian ridge, mountain Tebulo, existing on Atsunta ridge, follows Atsunta ridge in the south, obtains south-west direction at Borbalo Mountain of the Caucasian ridge and from the mountain Tchicho follows first Kartli ridge, then Sabaduri ridge, crosses Saguramo - Ialno ridge and joins the mountain Udabno on Iori Plateau. Along the west border of the basin, there are the following highest peaks of the mountain system: Tebulo Mountain (4,493 m), Amugo (3,840 m), Didi Borbalo (3,294 m), Tchicho (3,076 m), Natakhtari (966 m) and Udabno (879 m). The north border coincides with the state border of Georgia, in particular the Caucasian ridge and its north- east branch – Pirikita ridge. The border begins at Tebulomountain and goes up to Tivonroso. The east border goes down from Tivonroso Mountain towards the south and follows the river Alazani up to Mingechauri water basin. Along the east border of the basin there are the following highest peaks of the mountain system: Tebulo mountain (4,493 m), Komito (4,261 m), Dani mountain (4,174 m), Diklo mountain (4,285 m), Shavi Klde (3,578 m), Ninikas Tsikhe (3,117 m) and Tivonroso (3,374 m). The south border follows first the river Iori, then river Mtkvari and Iori watershed and joins Udabno Mountain. In this section there are Mtskemsis Mta (890 m) and Udabno (879 m).

The above described boundaries of Alazani- Iori Basin District includes the municipalities of Kakheti region: Telavi, Akhmeta, Gurjaani, Dedoplistskaro, Lagodekhi, Sagarejo, Signagi, Kvareli and Tianeti municipality of Mtskheta- Mtianeti region.

The main rivers of the Alazani- Iori Basin District are: Alazani, Iori, Ilto, Stori, Chelti, Lopota, Duruji, Turdo, Khodashnis Khevi, Kabali, Adedi, Vashliani, Gombori and Ole. Total length of medium and big rivers in Alazani – Iori basin District is 682 kilometres (on the territory of Georgia). In this Basin District total surface area of main lakes and reservoirs (basically Sioni Reservoir) is 12 km2.

Regarding to protected areas, Alazani – Iori Basin District includes Algeti National Park, Batsara – Babaneuri Protected Areas, Vashlovani Protected Areas, Tusheti Protected Areas, Mariamjvari Strict Nature Reserve, Kazbegi National Park and Chachuna Managed Reserve administration (Source: National Environmental Agency of Georgia).

Socio – Economic Characteristics

Total Population of Alazani – Iori Basin District is 328,051 (among them, urban population is 74,376 and rural population is 253,675) persons. Concerning to the number of households, this Basin District includes 90,501 households in total (where, urban households amount to 21,375 and rural households amount to 69,126). Regarding to population densities, number of population per square kilometres is 27 persons and number of households per square kilometres is 7 households. Taking into account the length of   medium and average rivers, number of population per kilometre of rivers is 481 persons and 133 households. For the surface area of main lakes of the basin, number of population per square kilometres of lakes is 27,338 persons and 7,542 households.

Value added of Alazani – Iori Basin District amounts to 285,728,285 GEL (and value added per capita within the basin is 871 GEL). Average income per month for urban household is 935.8 GEL and for rural one it amounts to 760.4 GEL. Concerning to economic activity (based on combined rankings of value added, turnover, purchase of goods and services and number of employed), manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade and construction sectors are leading contributors to economic performance in the given Basin District.

Total number of firms in Alazani – Iori Basin District amounts to 3,223. The vast majority of firms are concentrated in small businesses (nearly 98%).  Based on percentage shares of number of companies by kind of economic activities, wholesale and retail trade (56%), manufacturing (14%) and construction (6%) represent the most prominent sectors. More than a half of employed population in the basin is employed in small businesses (55%) and 33% is employed in medium size businesses. According to the distribution of employment within sectors in Alazani – Iori Basin District, 27% is employed in manufacturing sector, 21% is employed in wholesale and retail trade sector and 11% is employed in construction sector (Sources: Business statistics (Geostat); “Natural Resources and Environment Protection in Georgia, 2015” (Geostat); “Census 2014” (Geostat); HIS Databases – 2014 (Geostat) and Draft of Sub-Legislation - 2017).

 

SUMMARY TABLE

RIVER BASIN

MAIN RIVERS

MUNICIPALITIES COVERED

PRESSURES

Alazani-Iori(catchment area: 12080 km2)

Alazani-Iori River basin consists  of the rivers: Alazani, Iori, Ilto, Stori, Chelti, Lopota, Duruji, Turdo, Khodashniskhevi, Kabali, Adedi, Vashliani, Gombori, Ole

River basin covers following municipalities of Kakheti Region: Telavi, Akhmeta, Gurdjaani, Dedoflistskaro, Lagodekhi, Sagaredjo, Signagi, Kvareli, and Tianeti municipality (Mtskheta-Mtianeti Region)

 

Pollution from agricultural activities; pollution from sewage discharge; sand and gravel abstraction; water bodies at risk from livestock activities

The Kura upstream Mingechavir dam River Basin sub-District, Azerbaijan

EUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans for the Kura upstream Mingechavir dam in Azerbaijan in line with the European standards. The development of this planning is starting in 2018 and targets the preparation of a plan to be implemented from 2021 to 2027.

The Kura upstream Mingechavir dam river basin sub-district is located in the north-west part of Azerbaijan and corresponds to the national territory drain by the Alazani, Iori and Kura.

Mingechavir dam, is a major water works dividing the Kura basin in its middle. It is an earth-fill embankment dam (the length of the dam is 1,550 metres, its width is 16 metres and height is 80 m) on the Kura River just north of the city of Mingechavir  in Azerbaijan. The dam is used mainly for hydroelectric power production and water storage for irrigation.

Mingechavir reservoir, supplies downstream of the dam important irrigation channels to divert water in the Upper Qarabag and Upper Sirvan. It participates to the irrigation of about 1,000,000 ha of farmland in the country. The reservoir was built on a section of Kura River flowing through Mount Bozdağ in 1953.  The filling capacity of the reservoir is 83 m whereas the volume is 15.73 km³ and covering 605 km2.  The length is 70 km and width is 18 km. Maximum depth is 75 m, average depth - 26 m.  .

Main rivers feeding the Mingechavir reservoir are transboundary with Georgia. It is from north to south Ganikh (Alazani in Georgian), Gabirri (Iori in Georgian) and Kura.

The Kura upstream Mingechavir dam river basin sub-district within Azerbaijan Republic is divided in 3 main units: Central Kura (including Gabirri), Ganikh (Alazani) presented below and the reservoir itself presented above.

The Central Kura hydrographic unit

The Central Kura pilot river basin has be subject to the development of a first RBMP under the EPIRB projet which was part of the previous phase of the EUWI+. This unit is located in the Ganja-Gazakh Economic Region at western part of Azerbaijan and covers Agstafa, Dashkesen, Gadabay, Goranboy, Khanlar, Gazakh, Samukh, Shamkir, Tovuz administrative regions, cities like Ganja and Naftalan. Economic region has suitable economic – geographical location. It is located on the North – eastern slope of Lesser Caucasus mountainous massive, has border with Armenia in South – West and with Georgia in the West and North of the region. Region covers the area of 12 500 km2 (14.4 % of the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic). The territory of the region can be divided into zones considering its landscape characteristics: lowland area with some slope to the direction  Kura river, foothill zone, middle highland (1000-2000 m a.s.l.) zone and alpine zone (more than 2000 m a.s.l ) /36/. 

Rivers of the region are running from Lesser Caucasus to the Kura River Plain. Main rivers of the area are: Agstafachay, Tovuzchay, Asrikchay, Zayamchay, Shamkirchay, Ganjachay, Kurakchay, Tartarchay which flow into the Kura River directly or into the reservoirs over the Kura River/(Sources:Rustamov S.G., Kashkay R.M. Water resources of the rivers Azerbaijan SSR,  1989) .

Population and economic activities

In 2017, number of population in the Ganja-Gazakh Economic region amounted 1,265,2 mln. Population of the economic region makes 13,6% of the total country inhabitants. Average density of the population is 100 inhabitants/km2. 46,5% of the population lives in urban and 53,5% lives in rural areas. 50,5% out of total population are  women and 49,5% men respectively/(Source: Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee, 2014)

Most dense settled part of the region is Ganja city and Naftalan city. Except Ganja and Naftalan cities, Dashkesen rayon is leading for the percentage of urban population (43,2%) and Gadabay rayon is the leader for rural population (88,9%).

The main sectors of economy are agriculture, food processing and light industry and handicraft. The region is rich of such  natural minerals  as iron ore, copper, gold, silver, aluminum, limestone, marble, gypsum, collide, cement, etc. Especially iron ore and gold resources in Dashkesen, aluminum minerals in Zeylik, limestone in Khoshbulag and gold, silver and copper in Gadabay are of economic importance. The part of the Kura River flowing through the region has abundant hydro energy recourses.  The economic region also has natural-recreational recourses.

The main mineral resources of the area are sulfuric pyrites, cobalt, barite, iron ore, alunit, stone marble, gypsum, zeolite, bentonite, crude cement, gold, copper, limestone. This is the second industrial region in the Republic. The region is sharing 12 – 13 % of industrial production in Azerbaijan.

Agriculture plays an important role in social-economic development of the region as more than 50% of the residents of Ganja-Gazakh economic rayon live in villages. Therefore more than 40% of the overall productivity of the region is based on the agriculture.

Water uses

By the information of State Statistic Committee of Azerbaijan Republic total water resources of pilot area are 1.2 -1.4 billion m3. Water abstraction in the pilot region was about 1131 million m3 in 2013 of which around 150 million m3 was lost during transportation and 877,4 million m3   has been used  for different sectors. Source: Azerbaijan State Statistical Committee, 2014).

The total volume of waste waters produced in residential settlements of the pilot river basin is about 50,0 mln m3.

Identification and Delineation of Surface and Ground Water Bodies

In total 53 surface water bodies have been identified on the rivers of the Central Kura BD. Also 5 water bodies (irrigation canals) have been identified as the artificial water body. On the territory of the pilot basin there are 4 lake water bodies are located on the territory of the pilot basin. Two of them (reservoirs) have been identified as the heavily modified water body. 

Totally 7 groundwater bodies (G-100 - G-700) have been preliminary identified and delineated in Central Kura BD. Four groundwater bodies have been identified in the Quaternary aquifers, of them one is unconfined and three confined (artesian) and three groundwater bodies delineated in Pre-Quaternary aquifers.  All groundwater bodies are of good chemical and quantitative status and all of them are used for water supply to a various extent.

Water Management Issues and Significant Pressures

 

Water management issues

1

Untreated wastewater discharges from urban sewer systems (or combine sewer systems that means both urban and industrial)

2

Untreated wastewater discharges from industries

3

Loads of agricultural fertilizers

4

Disposal/dumping of solid household wastes

5

Sand and gravel extraction

6

Water abstractions for irrigation

7

Water abstractions by water supply systems

8

Water abstractions by HPPs

9

River regulation: damming, channelling, flow regulation

 

Main pressures

  • Point source pollution
  • Diffuse source pollution
  • Pollution by hazardous/priority substances
  • Hydromorphological alterations including all pressure types as listed in the EPIRB Guidance Document
The Alazani/Ganikh sub basin

Description

The Azeri part of the Alazani (Georgian name)/Ganikh (Azeri name) river basin is located in the North –Western corner of Azerbaijan at the south slope of the Greater Caucasus. The basin has borders with Georgia in the west and with Russia in the North.

The Alazani/Ganikh River comes from Major Caucasus Mountains in Georgia and runs into the Mingechevir reservoir. It’s the biggest left tributary of Kura River.

The length of the Alazani/Ganikh River is 413 km; the area of the basin is 12,080 km2. 4,755 km2 of the Alazani/Ganikh River basin is in Azerbaijan (equivalent to 5.5% of the total area of Azerbaijan).

The basin consists three main parts: 

  • The alluvial plain.
  • The mountainous part.
  • A hilly dry part in the southern area of the basin.

The population of Alazani/Ganikh River basin is approximately 611,9 thousand. More than two thirds of the population (approximately 72%) is living in the rural areas. The four major towns (from west to east: Balakan, Zagatala, Gakh and Sheki) are situated along the main road through the basin where the mountains meet the alluvial plain.

The river is mainly used for irrigation and for drinking water supply.

Water Management Issues and Significant Pressures

A light pollution of the river with biological substances comes from untreated sewage from the cities and other communities, as well as from the agricultural areas.

The irrigated area is ca. 30% of the total area of the basin and there is a big demand for water for irrigation.

The towns and villages are lacking a modern system to handle their solid waste and wastewater. Towns are without functional wastewater treatment plants. Solid waste from the villages is either dumped where convenient (often on the bank of the river or in the river) or in primitive landfills.

The present agricultural practices in the basin are not very advanced in terms of effective use pesticides and of the nutrients in chemical fertiliser and manure for crop production.

Main pressures

The main pressures on the river ecosystem are resulting from the following human activities:

  1. Water abstraction for irrigation
  2. Deforestation
  3. Solid waste disposal
  4. Car washing in rivers
  5. Discharge of waste waters from residential areas to rivers
  6. Hydromorphological changes
  7. Pollution by pesticides and fertilisers from agriculture
The Sevan River Basin sub-District, Armenia

EUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans for the Sevan river basin sub-district in line with the European standards. The development of this planning is starting in 2018 and targets the preparation of a plan to be implemented for 5 years.

 

Presentation of Sevan Basin Management Area

The total area of Sevan Basin Management Area (BMA), which includes the Lake Sevan area and watersheds of the 29 rivers and streams flowing into the lake, is 4750 km2. The length of the hydrographic network is 1339 km. Relatively large rivers (with watershed area of more than 100 km2) are the following rivers: Masrik, Karchaghbyur, Vardenis, Argichi and Gavaraget. Total population of Sevan BMA is about 175 thousand, which roughly composes 6% of the overall population of Armenia, and the annual river flow is 265 million m3 or about 4% of the total river flow of the country.

sevan-4.jpg

Lake Sevan is the largest lake in the South Caucasus, and at the same time one of the largest mountainous freshwater lakes in the world. The surface area of the lake together with the watershed area of the lake composes about 16% of the territory of Armenia. Maximum depth of the lake is 79.4m (in Minor Sevan), and the mean depth is 26.2m. Length of the lake through larger axis of Dzkanget River mouth (northwest) to Tsovak village (southwest) composes 74 km, whereas the average width is 19.2 km and the largest width across the axes is 32 km.

Lake Sevan has environmental, economic, and social significance and is an important multipurpose water reservoir for irrigation, hydropower, and recreational uses. The level of Lake Sevan fell dramatically due to excessive use during the period from 1930 to the 1980s, resulting in serious environmental and ecological problems, including deterioration of water quality, destruction of natural habitats, and loss of biodiversity. Starting in the 1980s, programs to stabilize and raise the lake level were initiated. This includes the construction of the Arpa- Sevan and Vorotan-Arpa tunnels, transferring up to 250 and 165 million cubic meters (MCM), respectively, and outflow limits up to 170 MCM per year. As a result, the level of Lake Sevan has been steadily rising since 2001. 

In 2017 about 111 million m3 of water was transferred to the lake through Arpa‐Sevan tunnel. As of December 31, 2017 the level of the Lake Sevan was 1900.42 m.

 

Water Releases from Lake Sevan and Lake Level, 1929-2017

There are 29 Rivers and Streams in Lake Sevan basin, including two large springs, which flow into the lake as rivers. Relatively large rivers (with watershed area of more than 100 km2) flowing into the lake are the following: Masrik, Karchaghbyur, Vardenis, Argichi and Gavaraget. The annual flow of these rivers and springs is 26.8 m3/second. Most of this flow is formed during spring inundation period.

Groundwater resources in Sevan BMA are located in Sarukhan groundwater deposit, Martuni-Artsvanist deposit, and Masrik groundwater deposit. Useful groundwater storage of these deposits amounts to 5.57 m3/s, of which 4.87 m3/s by springs, and 0.7 m3/s – by wells.

One of the main environmental problems in Sevan BMA relates to overfishing in Lake Sevan. In terms of pressures on water resources, the main hot spot is Sotq mine, as well as pressures from communal‐household wastewaters of the settlements, and
from agricultural drainage waters.

The Hrazdan River Basin sub-District, Armenia

EUWI+East project support the development of River Basin Management Plans for the Hrazdan river basin sub-district in line with the European standards. The development of this planning is starting in 2018 and targets the preparation of a plan to be implemented for 5 years.

Presentation of the Hrazdan Basin Management Areas

Hrazdan Basin Management Area (BMA), with a total area of area of 3970 km2, includes Hrazdan River Basin and Kasakh River Basin. Water resources in densely population Hrazdan BMA are stressed, given that the population of the BMA is 1,580 thousand or 54% of the country, whereas the annual river flow is 1062 million m3 or only 16% of the total river flow of the country. The capital city Yerevan is also located in Hrazdan BMA.

hrazdan-5.jpg

The total area of Hrazdan River basin is 2581 km2 and the total length of the hydrographic network is 616 km. Hrazdan River was originating from Lake Sevan before artificial decrease of the level of the lake. The river flows downstream of Yerevan and through Ararat valley flows into Araks River at 5 km below the Metsamor River mouth. The total length of Hrazdan River is 141 km, decline is about 1000 m. Marmarik River is the largest tributary of Hrazdan River. It has a length of 27 km, and the watershed area is 427 km2. Hrazdan River is fully used in Sevan‐Hrazdan water‐economic complex for irrigation and energetic purposes through derivation cascade of Hydropower Plans and irrigation channels. It is by far the most important irrigation system of the country, which serves over 40,000 ha of agricultural lands, including the most fertile agricultural lands of Ararat valley. The hydro‐energetic complex of a cascade of 6 hydropower plants on Hrazdan River has overall capacity of 55 MW.

In the territory of Hrazdan River basin Marmarik hydrological reserve is located, which was established on March 23, 1981 by a Decision No. 148 of the Council of Ministers of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The objective of the decision was to provide for scientifically justified complex and rational use and protection of water resources of the basin, and in order to maintain the natural regime of Marmarik River. The territory of the Hydrological Reserve is 93.5 km2 and is defined from the mouth of Marmarik River until its end, village Hanqavan.

The total area of Kasakh River basin is 1389 km2, and the total length of the hydrographic network is 629 km. Kasakh River originates from the northern slopes of Aragats Mountain. It flows into Metsamor River 26 km far from the river mouth. The length of Kasakh River is 89 km, and the watershed area is 1480 km2. Relatively large tributaries of Kasakh, which also originates from the slopes of Aragats Mountain, are Gegharot (with 28 km length and 162 km2 watershed area) and Amberd (with 36 km length and 141 km2 watershed area). Kasakh is a typical mountainous river. It has a high decline and high flows during inundations.

Hrazdan BMA is rich with groundwater resources. In Kasakh River basin Aparan‐Kuchak, Saghmossavan, Shorshor and Nazrevan‐Bazmaghbyur groundwater deposits are discovered. The discharge of a separate group of springs discharged within the mentioned deposits varies in a range of 200‐600 l/sec and more. Groundwater resources in the river basin are more than 3.3 m3/sec.

Hrazdan river basin’s groundwater deposit covers north‐western and western slopes of Geghama ridge. At present waters of Maqravan, Arzakan, Arzni, Gyumoush, Tsaravaghbyour and Yerevan deposits are used for drinking water supply. In Akunq‐Katnaghbyur deposit waters are used through spring and well intakes. Approximate resources of the deposit are around 1800 l/sec, of which 1500‐1600 l/sec is by spring.

Total resources of Hrazdan basin’s groundwater deposits are around 7 m3/s, of which only 4 m3/s is studied.

In the middle and lower reaches of Hrazdan River basin the main sources of pressures come from the communal‐household wastewaters of Yerevan city (pollution with nutrients and organic substances) and settlements located in the upper reaches of Hrazdan city,
pressures from agricultural drainage waters, pressures from food processing industries. In large poultry and livestock farms of Getamej, Lusakert and Arzni, pollution with nutrients is observed.

bandeau-footer-3.png
DISCLAMER : The views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission
© 2018 EUWIplusEAST All Rights Reserved. Powered by International Office of Water

Please publish modules in offcanvas position.